After a digital twin of a heart is created, researchers can go a step further and use 3D printing to create a physical version of a heart. This is then used to practice surgical techniques and test solutions such as new heart valves or drugs without ever touching an actual body.
March 2, 2023: Following National Heart Health Month in February, TCS futurists took a look at how a digital twin of the heart can save more lives – human and animal – in the future. From boosting athletic performance to developing predictive medicine, new advances in technology will help keep hearts healthier than ever.
TCS is on the leading edge of “Digital BioTwin” research, modeling human organs digitally to find new ways for researchers and doctors to test experimental drugs and surgical techniques without risk. With heart disease the leading cause of death in the U.S., it is more important than ever to innovate techniques to keep hearts healthy.
Using information from a MRI of someone’s heart, TCS can create a fully modeled human heart in cyberspace. By applying various historical and speculative data sets, doctors can see the impact of different conditions and situations such as beginning a long-term exercise program or quitting smoking. This approach to predictive medicine demonstrates the real impact of health choices to patients.
“We found that the information we could get from PSMA scanning in patients with newly-diagnosed prostate cancer before surgery was at least as reliable and useful as other information from biopsy, PSA levels, or clinical exam for predicting how patients would do after surgery or other treatment,” says Farshad Moradi, a radiologist at Stanford who co-authored the study.
In December, scientists at Stanford University reported promising findings with a new technology that lights up prostate tumors on specialized imaging scans. The approach relies on a minimally-radioactive tracer that travels the body hunting for cancer cells.
Called 68Ga-PSMA-11, and delivered intravenously, the tracer binds exclusively with a protein called prostate- specific membrane antigen (PSMA). Prostate cancer cells contain far more of this protein on their surfaces than normal prostate cells do. Tumors flagged by 68Ga-PSMA-11 show up on an imaging scan like lit matches in a dark room. Doctors are already using PSMA scans to diagnose early metastatic cancer, and the tracer can also be used to ferry drugs directly into malignant tumors.
Abbott Laboratories newest continuous glucose monitor is now available at participating retail pharmacies and through durable medical equipment suppliers. The Freestyle Libre 3 was approved by the FDA in June and is a step up from previous Abbott systems.
Abbott Laboratories and Dexcom are the leaders in the CGM market, which hit $5.1 billion in revenue in 2021 and is expected to reach $13.2 billion by 2028, according to Vantage Market Research. Abbott’s CGM systems, called FreeStyle Libre, generated $3.7 billion in revenue last year, with 4 million users globally.
CNBC’s Erin Black, a type 1 diabetic, tested out the Libre 3 for over a month. Here is her review.
Each year, medical diagnosis errors affect the health of millions of Americans and cost billions of dollars. Machine learning technologies can help identify hidden or complex patterns in diagnostic data to detect diseases earlier and improve treatments.
Several machine learning (ML) technologies are available in the U.S. to assist with the diagnostic process. The resulting benefits include earlier detection of diseases; more consistent analysis of medical data; and increased access to care, particularly for underserved populations. GAO identified a variety of ML-based technologies for five selected diseases
Most technologies relying on data from imaging such as x-rays or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, these ML technologies have generally not been widely adopted.
“Colorectal cancer is almost entirely preventable with proper screening,” says senior author Michael B. Wallace, M.D., division chair of Gastroenterology and Hepatology at Sheikh Shakhbout Medical City in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, and the Fred C. Andersen Professor at Mayo Clinic in Jacksonville, Florida. “The substantial decrease in miss rate using AI reassures health care providers on the decreased risk of perceptual errors.”
The most relevant cause of post-colonoscopy colorectal cancer (CRC) is the miss rate of colorectal neoplasia — the rate at which neoplastic lesions are not detected in a screening or surveillance colonoscopy. Some studies suggest that 52% to 57% of post-colonoscopy CRC cases are due to missed lesions at patients’ colonoscopies. It’s estimated that 25% of neoplastic lesions are missed following screening colonoscopy.
Mayo Clinic Gastroenterology and Hepatology, in collaboration with colleagues from around the world, found that using artificial intelligence (AI) in colorectal cancer screening produced a 50% reduction in the miss rate for colorectal neoplasia. Results of the study were published in the July 2022 edition of Gastroenterology.
Deep brain stimulation is a surgical procedure that involves implanting electrodes in the brain, which deliver electrical impulses that block or change the abnormal activity that cause symptoms. (Courtesy: Cleveland Clinic)
For the study, Joe first underwent two surgical procedures — one to insert the DBS device under the skin of his chest, just below the collarbone, and the other, to implant the DBS electrode in a part of the cerebellum called the dentate nucleus. Once activated, the device, called an implantable pulse generator, serves as a specially-calibrated pacemaker for the brain, stimulating it to try and enhance motor rehabilitation.
Many times in science, application precedes understanding. Deep brain stimulation, either by electrical or magnetic pulses is a good example.
It is not at all understood how the brain really works, much less how electrical and magnetic stimulation in the brain works. It may stimulate or slow down neural impulses, or interrupt the incoming signals or the outgoing messages. Are there any other possibilities?
At least it does work, Apparently.
One thing for certain is that deep brain stimulation is preferable to previous treatments, which produced small, destructive, irreversible lesions in the brain. At least these stimulations can be stopped if they don’t work.
I enjoyed this posting, since it reignited my interest in the cerebellum. This amazing Organ has more neurons than the rest of the brain combined, represented by innumerable small granule cells. I wasn’t even aware of the dentate nucleus, which is an island of cerebral cortex-like neurons in the white matter of the cerebellum. Apparently the action of the cerebellum is orchestrated through this and a couple of other islands of neurons. All of the coordination, movement, and thought processing accomplished in the cerebellum takes place through these nuclei.
It was also fascinating to learn of a patient who has complete lack of a cerebellum, and suffers only some mild incoordination and speech problems. Apparently, absent the cerebellum, the rest of the brain is largely capable of taking over the function of the missing cerebellum. Once the brain is formed, However, and dependent upon the cerebellum, damage to this organ causes a great deal of coordination, movement, and balance problems.
I’ll put another plug-in for sleep, diet and exercise, as well as being careful with your body. Prevention is far better than treatment.
Are Amazon Alexa and Google Home limited to our bedrooms, or can they be used in hospitals? Do you envision a future where physicians work hand-in-hand with voice AI to revolutionize healthcare delivery? In the near future, clinical smart assistants will be able to automate many manual hospital tasks—and this will be only the beginning of the changes to come.
Voice AI is the future of physician-machine interaction and this Focus book provides invaluable insight on its next frontier. It begins with a brief history and current implementations of voice-activated assistants and illustrates why clinical voice AI is at its inflection point. Next, it describes how the authors built the world’s first smart surgical assistant using an off-the-shelf smart home device, outlining the implementation process in the operating room. From quantitative metrics to surgeons’ feedback, the authors discuss the feasibility of this technology in the surgical setting. The book then provides an in-depth development guideline for engineers and clinicians desiring to develop their own smart surgical assistants. Lastly, the authors delve into their experiences in translating voice AI into the clinical setting and reflect on the challenges and merits of this pursuit.
The world’s first smart surgical assistant has not only reduced surgical time but eliminated major touch points in the operating room, resulting in positive, significant implications for patient outcomes and surgery costs. From clinicians eager for insight on the next digital health revolution to developers interested in building the next clinical voice AI, this book offers a guide for both audiences.
“Roughly two and a half years into the pandemic, White House officials and health experts have reached a pivotal conclusion about Covid-19 vaccines: The current approach of offering booster shots every few months isn’t sustainable.
Though most vaccines take years to develop, the Covid shots now in use were created in record time—in a matter of months. For health authorities and a public desperate for tools to deal with the pandemic, their speedy arrival provided a huge lift, preventing hospitalizations and deaths while helping people to escape lockdowns and return to work, school and many other aspects of pre-Covid life.”
Empowering Patients Through Education And Telemedicine