Tag Archives: Mayo Clinic

Reviews: Brain Tumor Risk Factors & Symptoms

Mayo Clinic (May 17, 2023) – Learning about a brain tumor can be intimidating. Alyx Porter, M.D., a neuro-oncologist at Mayo Clinic, walks you through the facts, the questions, and the answers to help you better understand this condition.

Video timeline: 0:00 Introduction 0:37 What is a brain tumor? 1:38 Who gets a brain tumor? / Risk factors 2:26 Symptoms of a brain tumor 3:36 How is a brain tumor diagnosed? 4:13 Treatment options 6:24 Coping methods/ What now? 7:14 Ending

For more reading visit: https://mayocl.in/3ciMNB7.

Technology: New Head & Neck Cancer Treatments

Mayo Clinic (May 11, 2023) – In the U.S., HPV is linked to about 70% of throat and mouth cancers. And more than 70% of those cancers are diagnosed in men, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Treatment for throat and mouth cancers, also referred to as oropharyngeal or head and neck cancers, will depend on location and stage of the cancer as well as other factors. Dr. Phillip Pirgousis, a Mayo Clinic head and neck surgeon, says patients have safer, less invasive surgical treatments available to them thanks to ongoing innovation.

Coping With Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

Mayo Clinic (April 27, 2023) – Dr. Brian Lacy says irritable bowel syndrome, or IBS, is a chronic condition that affects the intestinal tract. It can cause painful stomach cramps, diarrhea and constipation.

IBS is now categorized as a disorder of gut-brain interaction, which means that there’s a problem with how the gut and brain communicate with each other. He says stress plays a key role. There’s no cure for IBS, but symptoms can be managed. Try eating smaller, more frequent meals, and exercising regularly. Deep breathing and yoga are also helpful to reduce stress.


Colorectal Cancer: Some Myths & Facts Explained

Mayo Clinic Cancer Blog – Colon cancer can occur in any part of the colon. An examination of your entire colon using a long, flexible tube equipped with a camera (colonoscopy) is one way to detect colon cancer and polyps. It can be easy to feel confused by screening recommendations for common types of cancer. Test your knowledge of why, when and how you can be screened with these myths and facts:

Colorectal cancer is rare.

Myth. Colorectal cancer is the second-leading cause of cancer-related death in men and women combined. Roughly 1 in 25 women will have colorectal cancer, and about 1 in 23 men will have colorectal cancer. To put that in perspective, when watching a football game, of all the players on the field, about one player would be diagnosed with colorectal cancer in their lifetime.

Colon cancer locations

Colorectal cancer can happen when you are young.

Fact. The rate of colorectal cancer is increasing in people under 50. Rates of colorectal cancer in people under 50 have doubled since 1990. In people over 65, the diagnosis rates have been decreasing, most likely because of colorectal cancer screening.


Colon Cancer Options: Intraoperative Radiation Therapy Vs Radiation

What is the difference between intraoperative radiation therapy and normal radiation? Is radiation a standard treatment option, or are there other approaches?

Mayo Clinic (March 28, 2023):

ANSWER: Colon cancer is one of the most common malignancies in the U.S., with more than 100,000 new cases diagnosed each year. Over a lifetime, it is estimated that 1 in 23 men and 1 in 26 women will be diagnosed with colon cancer. Typical colon cancers start as a polyp-like growth in the inside layer of the colon, which can be seen during a colonoscopy. Most cancer organizations recommend starting colonoscopy screenings at age 45.

When the treatment team is concerned about achieving negative margins, or removing the entire tumor with an edge of normal tissue around the specimen, intraoperative radiation therapy may be considered. Intraoperative radiation therapy rarely is used for colon cancer, but, when necessary, the area of concern is directly targeted with a single fraction of radiation during surgery. 

When a mass is found during a colonoscopy or cancer is suspected, biopsies are taken and reviewed by a pathologist. In this scenario, most patients are asymptomatic. Without preventive colon cancer screenings, a tumor may grow to an advanced stage before it causes any symptoms that a patient or health care professional would recognize. The most common signs and symptoms of colon cancer are anemia, which may lead to fatigue; abdominal pain; blood in the stool or other bowel changes; weight loss; and signs of obstruction.

Once colon cancer is diagnosed, the next step is a staging examination. This involves a history and physical examination; blood work; confirmation that a full colonoscopy has been performed; and CT scans of the chest, abdomen and pelvis. The results of these tests will allow your health care professional to assign a clinical stage. In stages 1 and 2, the tumor remains in the colon wall with no evidence that it has spread further. With stage 3, there is concern that the tumor cells have spread to the regional lymph nodes, and in stage 4 colon cancer, the tumor cells have spread outside of the local area to other organs  most commonly the liver, lungs or peritoneum.

Surgery is the mainstay of treatment for stages 1, 2 and 3 disease and is usually the first step in the treatment process. The segment of the colon bearing the tumor is removed, along with the draining lymph nodes. The ends of the intestine are reconnected, and the specimen is sent to the pathologist who then performs a histologic examination of the colon and the associated lymph nodes. The pathologist will assign a final pathologic stage to the tumor, which will dictate the need for any additional treatment.

Spinal Stenosis: Causes &Treatment (Mayo Clinic)

Mayo Clinic (March 30, 2023) – Spinal stenosis happens when the space inside the backbone is too small. This can put pressure on the spinal cord and the nerves that travel through the spine. Spinal stenosis occurs most often in the neck, called cervical spinal stenosis, and in the lower back, called lumbar spinal stenosis.

Spinal stenosis - Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic

The most common cause of spinal stenosis is wear-and-tear changes in the spine related to arthritis. Most people with spinal stenosis are over 50. Younger people may be at higher risk of spinal stenosis if they have scoliosis or other spinal problems.


Spinal stenosis often causes no symptoms. When symptoms do occur, they start slowly and get worse over time. Symptoms depend on which part of the spine is affected.

Spinal stenosis in the neck can cause:

  • Numbness
  • Tingling or weakness in a hand, leg, foot or arm
  • Problems with walking and balance
  • Neck pain
  • Problems with the bowel or bladder

Spinal stenosis in the lower back can cause:

  • Pain or cramping in one or both legs that happens when you stand for a long time or when you walk
  • Back pain


Treatment for spinal stenosis depends which part of the spine is affected and the severity of your symptoms.

Nonsurgical treatment can include:

  • Medication.
    For control of pain, your health care professional might prescribe nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antidepressants, anti-seizure drugs or opioids.
  • Physical therapy.
    A physical therapist can teach you exercises that can build up your strength and endurance, maintain the flexibility and stability of your spine, and improve your balance.
  • Steroid shots.
    Your nerve roots can become irritated and swollen at the spots where they are being pinched. Injecting a steroid medication into the space around the pinched nerve can reduce the inflammation and relieve some of the pain. Repeated steroid injections can weaken nearby bones, tendons and ligaments, though. That’s why a person often must wait many months before getting another steroid injection.
  • Removal of thickened ligament tissue.
    Sometimes, the ligament at the back of the lumbar spine gets too thick. Needlelike tools inserted through the skin can remove some of the ligament. This can create more space in the spinal canal to reduce pressure on nerve roots.

Surgeries to create more space within the spinal canal may include:

  • Laminectomy.
    This surgery removes the back part, or lamina, of the affected spinal bone. This eases pressure on the nerves by making more space around them. In some cases, that bone may need to be linked to nearby spinal bones with metal hardware and a bone graft.
  • Laminotomy.
    This surgery removes only part of the lamina. The surgeon makes a hole just big enough to relieve pressure in a specific spot.
  • Laminoplasty.
    This surgery is done only on spinal bones in the neck. It makes the space within the spinal canal bigger by creating a hinge on the lamina. Metal hardware bridges the gap in the opened section of the spine.

Kidney Cancer: What Are The Treatment Options?

Mayo Clinic (March 20, 2023) – How is kidney cancer treated? About 50,000 people in the U.S. are diagnosed with kidney cancer.

Risks factors for developing this type of cancer include environmental exposures like smoking, high blood pressure, a history of kidney failure, obesity, or not having a healthy weight. And there are also hereditary syndromes that may your risk for kidney cancer.

Dr. Thai Ho, a Mayo Clinic oncologist who specializes in genitourinary malignancies, says there are no screening tests specifically for kidney cancer. When it is discovered early, it’s usually from an imaging test for another issue.

Diverticulitis: Diagnosis And Testing (Mayo Clinic)

Mayo Clinic – Diverticulitis is usually diagnosed during an acute attack. Because abdominal pain can indicate a number of problems, your doctor will need to rule out other causes for your symptoms.

Your doctor will start with a physical examination, which will include checking your abdomen for tenderness. Women generally have a pelvic examination as well to rule out pelvic disease.

After that, the following tests are likely:

  • Blood and urine tests, to check for signs of infection.
  • A pregnancy test for women of childbearing age, to rule out pregnancy as a cause of abdominal pain.
  • A liver enzyme test, to rule out liver-related causes of abdominal pain.
  • A stool test, to rule out infection in people who have diarrhea.
  • A CT scan, which can identify inflamed or infected pouches and confirm a diagnosis of diverticulitis. CT can also indicate the severity of diverticulitis and guide treatment.


Reviews: Poor Nutrition Is #1 Cause Of Early Death

According to Stephen Kopecky, MD, a preventive cardiologist at the Mayo Clinic, “nutrition is now the number one cause of early death and early disease in our country and the world.” Moreover, he says that while having genes for disease will increase your risk by 30% to 40%, having a bad lifestyle for disease will increase your risk by 300% to 400%.

WebMD (March 7, 2023) – About 20 years ago, Kopecky says, the cause of death worldwide changed from infection to non-infection (like non-communicable diseases). “In those last 20 years, that’s grown in terms of what kills us and what gets us sick,” he says. “The three big non-communicable diseases are heart disease, cancer, and rapidly rising is Alzheimer’s. But there’s also diabetes, obesity, and high blood pressure — all those things are also related to diet.”

Forty-eight-year-old James, of Fredericksburg, VA, knows this all too well. James asked that his last name not be printed, to protect his privacy. For the last 30 years, he’s been managing type 1 diabetes and complications of insulin resistance, along with high blood pressure, high cholesterol, thyroid disease, and low testosterone. As a former Division 1 college athlete, James exercised regularly and ate what he believed to be a responsible diet.

Review: Psoriatic Arthritis Flare-Up Signs & Symptoms

“A psoriatic arthritis flare-up is a temporary worsening of symptoms of arthritis, which includes swelling, pain and stiffness in your joints,” explains Dr. Sapkota. “It can also include swelling of the whole toes or fingers due to the swelling of the ligaments around the joint. And sometimes, psoriasis, a skin rash, can worsen at the same time as your joints.”

Mayo Clinic – Symptoms of psoriatic arthritis flare-ups

It can be hard to predict when you may have a flare-up — and the degree of pain and discomfort can vary from person to person.

Psoriatic arthritis flare-up symptoms include:

  • Joint pain.
  • Joint swelling.
  • Joint tenderness.
  • Fatigue.
  • Difficulty moving.

How long do psoriatic arthritis flare-ups last?

A typical psoriatic arthritis flare-up can last anywhere from a few days to a week. It depends on the individual.

And it can vary on when you get them. You may experience flare-ups often, while others may not have them as frequently.

Bottom line? Psoriatic arthritis flare-ups can be unpredictable.

What triggers psoriatic arthritis flare-ups?

Causes of psoriatic arthritis flare-ups can include:

  • Stress and anxiety.
  • Obesity.
  • Smoking.
  • Alcohol.
  • Lack of activity.
  • Lack of sleep.
  • Diet.
  • Skipping psoriatic arthritis medication.
  • Certain medications like beta-blockers.