Cleveland Clinic (April 6, 2023) – About 5.7 million adults in the U.S. have bipolar disorder. The lifelong mental health condition, which includes four different types, is known for the maniac and depressive episodes someone experiences.
Chapters: 0:00 Intro 0:26 What is bipolar disorder? 0:50 What does a manic episode feel like? 1:18 What does a depressive episode feel like? 2:00 How to manage bipolar disorder
What is bipolar disorder?
Bipolar disorder (formerly known as manic-depressive illness or manic depression) is a lifelong mood disorder and mental health condition that causes intense shifts in mood, energy levels, thinking patterns and behavior. These shifts can last for hours, days, weeks or months and interrupt your ability to carry out day-to-day tasks.
There are a few types of bipolar disorder, which involve experiencing significant fluctuations in mood referred to as hypomanic/manic and depressive episodes. However, people with bipolar disorder aren’t always in a hypomanic/manic or depressive state. They also experience periods of normal mood, known as euthymia.
April 4, 2023: Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) is a chronic circulatory condition, which, if not treated, can lead to limb amputations. PAD affects nearly 20 million Americans. An estimated 200,000 people, disproportionately from minority communities, suffer avoidable amputations every year.
What is peripheral artery disease?
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is plaque buildup in your leg arteries. Your leg arteries carry oxygen and nutrient-rich blood from your heart to your arms and legs. Other names for this are peripheral vascular disease or peripheral arterial disease.
Shaped like hollow tubes, arteries have a smooth lining that prevents blood from clotting and promotes steady blood flow. When you have peripheral artery disease, plaque (made of fat, cholesterol and other substances) forms gradually inside your artery walls. Slowly, this narrows your arteries. This plaque is also known as atherosclerosis.
Many plaque deposits are hard on the outside and soft on the inside. The hard surface can crack or tear, allowing platelets (disc-shaped particles in your blood that help it clot) to come to the area. Blood clots can form around the plaque, making your artery even narrower.
If plaque or a blood clot narrows or blocks your arteries, blood can’t get through to nourish organs and other tissues. This causes damage ― and eventually death (gangrene) ― to the tissues below the blockage. This happens most often in your toes and feet.
PAD can get worse faster in some people more than others. Many other factors matter, including where in your body the plaque forms and your overall health.
Your “normal” body temperature changes throughout your life. It often rises from childhood into adulthood before dipping during the later years of life.
Cleveland Clinic (February 21, 2023) – But newer studies suggest the average person today actually runs a little cooler than that — somewhere between 97.5 F (36.4 C) and 97.9 F (36.6 C).
For younger children
The typical body temperature range for children between birth and 10 years old goes from 95.9 F (35.5 C) to 99.5 F (37.5 C). This would be a temperature measured through an oral reading.
For adults and older children
The typical body temperature range for people ages 11 to 65 is 97.6 F (36.4 C) to 99.6 F (37.6 C).
For older adults
The typical body temperature range for people older than 65 is 96.4 F (35.8 C) to 98.5 F (36.9 C).
A temperature that’s higher than 100.4 F (or 38 C) is considered a fever, and it’s usually something you should bring to your doctor’s attention — especially if it lingers for more than two days, Dr. Ford says.
Oftentimes, a fever is your body’s reaction to an infection or virus (like influenza). A fever itself doesn’t require any specific treatment, other than trying to bring the temperature down for your comfort.
Persistent low-grade or high-grade fevers could signal that something else is going on in your body. A number of medical conditions, including hyperthyroidism and other endocrine disorders, can raise your body’s core temperature.
Cleveland Clinic – The American College of Cardiology’s Cardiovascular Disease in Women Committee released guidance on hormone therapy, with a focus on caring for women with a risk of heart disease. Leslie Cho, MD, explains what women should know about hormone therapy, and options available for women with heart disease risk factors.
Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) isn’t the same as a heart attack, though people often use the terms interchangeably. While both are life-threatening heart conditions, understanding the differences could be lifesaving.
When it comes to cardiac arrest versus a heart attack, it can be easy to get them confused. You may be wondering, Is cardiac arrest the same as a heart attack?
Both a heart attack and cardiac arrest can be scary and life-threatening medical conditions affecting your heart, but there are differences in how and why they occur.
A heart attack is caused by a blockage. It happens when an artery blocks the blood flow to your heart.
Cardiac arrest is an electrical issue. It occurs when quick, irregular impulses take over your heart’s rhythm.
Vitamin B9 is one of eight B (B-complex) vitamins that help your body change food (carbohydrates) into fuel (glucose) to produce energy. You need B9 for the health of your liver, skin, hair and eyes, and to keep your nervous system working properly.
Cleveland Clinic – Vitamin B9 helps your body make healthy new cells, supporting many of its functions, and may help prevent health issues from developing. It’s proven critical for reproductive health, too.
“It’s essential for people who are pregnant to take folic acid supplements to support healthy fetal growth and development,” notes Zumpano. “When you’re trying to conceive or are pregnant, it’s extremely difficult to get the amount of vitamin B9 needed.”
Studies show that people who take folic acid supplements before conception and during the first trimester of pregnancy may reduce their risk of having children with neural tube defects (birth defects of the brain and spine such as spina bifida) by 40% to 80%. Early evidence suggests folic acid may also be associated with a lower risk of autism, severe language delays and emotional issues.
Cleveland Clinic – A tetanus shot is a vaccine. It protects you from tetanus, a life-threatening bacterial infection. Babies and kids need several doses of the vaccine at different ages. Adults should get a tetanus booster shot every 10 years. You get the shot in your upper arm or thigh. The shot is safe, and serious complications are very rare.
Chapters: 0:00 Intro 0:15 What is tetanus? 1:04 When should you get a tetanus shot? 1:41 When should you get a tetanus booster? 2:02 What is tetanus immune globulin? 2:26 Conclusion