Breast Cancer: Benefits Of An Early Mammogram

A women’s lifetime risk of developing breast cancer is one in eight. Research has shown that the earlier you detect breast cancer the more options there are for treatment and a better chance for a cure.

What is a mammogram?

A mammogram is a low-dose X-ray of breast tissue. Healthcare providers use mammograms, or mammography, to look for early signs of breast cancer before symptoms develop. This is called a screening mammogram. Providers also use mammography to look for any abnormalities if you develop a new symptom, such as a lumppain, nipple discharge or breast skin changes. This is called a diagnostic mammogram.

Aside from skin cancer, breast cancer is the most common cancer that affects people assigned female at birth and represents 14% of all new cancer diagnoses in the United States. While breast cancer treatment therapies continue to improve and have contributed to a reduction in cancer-related deaths, early diagnosis through screening mammograms has a greater overall impact on survival rates.

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Technology: How AI Can Improve Diagnostics (GAO)

Each year, medical diagnosis errors affect the health of millions of Americans and cost billions of dollars. Machine learning technologies can help identify hidden or complex patterns in diagnostic data to detect diseases earlier and improve treatments.

Several machine learning (ML) technologies are available in the U.S. to assist with the diagnostic process. The resulting benefits include earlier detection of diseases; more consistent analysis of medical data; and increased access to care, particularly for underserved populations. GAO identified a variety of ML-based technologies for five selected diseases

  • Certain cancers,
  • Diabetic retinopathy,
  • Alzheimer’s disease,
  • Heart disease,
  • COVID-19

Most technologies relying on data from imaging such as x-rays or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, these ML technologies have generally not been widely adopted.

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Cervical Cancer: Its Risks, Symptoms & Treatment

Learning about cervical cancer can be intimidating. Kristina Butler, M.D., a gynecologic oncologist at Mayo Clinic, walks you through the facts, the questions, and the answers to help you better understand this condition.

Video timeline: 0:00 Introduction 0:38 What is cervical cancer? 1:16 Who gets cervical cancer? / Risk factors 2:23 Symptoms of cervical cancer 3:03 How is cervical cancer diagnosed? 4:26 Treatment options 5:20 Coping methods/ What now? 6:10 Ending

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Glaucoma: The Risks Of Ocular Hypertension

Often described as the silent thief of sight, glaucoma is the most common cause of irreversible blindness in the world. High pressure in the eye damages the optic nerve, first stealing peripheral vision (what you see at the corners of your eyes) and later harming central vision (what you see when looking straight ahead). Usually, people notice no symptoms until vision loss occurs.

Close up photo of a brown eye; black pupil in the center, irish is many shades of brown, white of eye shows tiny veins

Lowering high eye pressure is the only known treatment to prevent or interrupt glaucoma. But does everyone with higher-than-normal eye pressure need to be treated? A major long-term study provides some clues, though not yet a complete answer.

Does everyone with high eye pressure develop glaucoma?

In the US, glaucoma affects an estimated three million people, half of whom do not know that they have it. An ophthalmologist can perform a comprehensive eye exam to determine if someone has glaucoma, or is at risk for developing it in the future due to high eye pressure (ocular hypertension). Research from the long-running Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study (OHTS) shows that some people with high eye pressure may never develop glaucoma, while others will.

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Prostate Cancer: Seven Top Questions Answered

Mitchell Humphreys, M.D., a urologist at Mayo Clinic, answers the important questions you may have about prostate cancer.

Video timeline: 0:00 Introduction 0:16 How do you know how fast my cancer is growing? 0:49 Is prostate cancer sexually transmitted? 1:04 Is prostate cancer hereditary? 1:36 What can I do to prevent or slow prostate cancer? 2:03 Is there a risk of cancer spreading if I have a biopsy of my prostate? 2:20: When should I stop screening for prostate cancer? 2:46 How can I be the best partner to my medical team? 3:12 Ending

Get informed: https://mayocl.in/3Sk7lJE.

Medicine: Adult-Onset Autoimmune Diabetes

  • Adult-onset autoimmune diabetes encompasses a wide spectrum of heterogeneous genotypes and phenotypes, ranging from classic adult-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus to latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA)
  • The heterogeneity of LADA arises from its definition as being present in any adult with diabetes who does not require insulin and who is positive for any islet autoantibody, regardless of titre, number or epitope specificity
  • The heterogeneity of LADA manifests in different clinical phenotypes, ranging from prevalent insulin resistance to prevalent insulin deficiency, each of which might be associated with different autoimmune and metabolic markers
  • Although patients with LADA are leaner and have healthier lipid and blood pressure profiles, evidence shows that there is no difference in cardiovascular outcomes between these patients and those with type 2 diabetes mellitus

Medicine: Using Stem Cells To Treat Osteonecrosis

Daniel Wiznia, MD, an orthopaedic surgeon with Yale School of Medicine, is practicing a surgical technique designed to render 10% of hip replacements unnecessary. Regenerative properties from a patient’s own stem cells are responsible for regrowing bone, restoring blood flow, and being able to avoid further interventional surgery.

Osteonecrosis, also known as avascular necrosis, occurs in more than 20,000 Americans each year. As the condition progresses, bone cells known as osteoblasts become unable to repair themselves and sustain the integrity of the bone, and ultimately die. The bone deterioration leads to a decrease in blood flow to the area, further weakening the entire skeletal structure of the upper leg.

If unaddressed, the ball portion of the hip’s ball and socket joint will cave in on itself and collapse, requiring a total hip replacement. The fact that patients often receive this diagnosis during their 30s and 40s presents a particular challenge.

While the lifespan of hip prosthetics has dramatically increased in recent years, a patient who undergoes a total hip arthroplasty, or total hip replacement, at that age will almost certainly require a revision later in life. This redo of the same surgery at an older age comes with an entirely new set of risks and potential complications, making it that much harder to manage down the road.

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