“We found that the information we could get from PSMA scanning in patients with newly-diagnosed prostate cancer before surgery was at least as reliable and useful as other information from biopsy, PSA levels, or clinical exam for predicting how patients would do after surgery or other treatment,” says Farshad Moradi, a radiologist at Stanford who co-authored the study.
In December, scientists at Stanford University reported promising findings with a new technology that lights up prostate tumors on specialized imaging scans. The approach relies on a minimally-radioactive tracer that travels the body hunting for cancer cells.
Called 68Ga-PSMA-11, and delivered intravenously, the tracer binds exclusively with a protein called prostate- specific membrane antigen (PSMA). Prostate cancer cells contain far more of this protein on their surfaces than normal prostate cells do. Tumors flagged by 68Ga-PSMA-11 show up on an imaging scan like lit matches in a dark room. Doctors are already using PSMA scans to diagnose early metastatic cancer, and the tracer can also be used to ferry drugs directly into malignant tumors.
Each year, medical diagnosis errors affect the health of millions of Americans and cost billions of dollars. Machine learning technologies can help identify hidden or complex patterns in diagnostic data to detect diseases earlier and improve treatments.
Several machine learning (ML) technologies are available in the U.S. to assist with the diagnostic process. The resulting benefits include earlier detection of diseases; more consistent analysis of medical data; and increased access to care, particularly for underserved populations. GAO identified a variety of ML-based technologies for five selected diseases
Most technologies relying on data from imaging such as x-rays or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, these ML technologies have generally not been widely adopted.
Daniel Wiznia, MD, an orthopaedic surgeon with Yale School of Medicine, is practicing a surgical technique designed to render 10% of hip replacements unnecessary. Regenerative properties from a patient’s own stem cells are responsible for regrowing bone, restoring blood flow, and being able to avoid further interventional surgery.
Osteonecrosis, also known as avascular necrosis, occurs in more than 20,000 Americans each year. As the condition progresses, bone cells known as osteoblasts become unable to repair themselves and sustain the integrity of the bone, and ultimately die. The bone deterioration leads to a decrease in blood flow to the area, further weakening the entire skeletal structure of the upper leg.
If unaddressed, the ball portion of the hip’s ball and socket joint will cave in on itself and collapse, requiring a total hip replacement. The fact that patients often receive this diagnosis during their 30s and 40s presents a particular challenge.
While the lifespan of hip prosthetics has dramatically increased in recent years, a patient who undergoes a total hip arthroplasty, or total hip replacement, at that age will almost certainly require a revision later in life. This redo of the same surgery at an older age comes with an entirely new set of risks and potential complications, making it that much harder to manage down the road.
In a nonrandomized controlled intervention study published in JAMA, researchers in Germany assessed whether deployment of a flying interventional team, consisting of a neurointerventional radiologist and an angiography assistant, was associated with a shorter time to endovascular thrombectomy for patients in rural or intermediate population areas in Southeast Bavaria.
Stroke prevention by a healthy lifestyle, including a good diet, regular exercise, and sleep is of course preferable to treatment.
However, stroke still claims more than 100,000 lives per year in the United States, and is a major factor in disability.
Recognition of a stroke is the first crucial step, and has been discussed in DWWR previously; FAST is the Menmonic and guiding principle. Ask the patient to smile, and it may be assymmetric, with one side drooping. Ask the patient to raise both arms, and one may drift down. Ask the patient to repeat a simple sentence, and he may be unable to do so. And above all be speedy, since time is of the essence, and treatment must take place within a very few hours.
Modern medical centers in large cities frequently have a team dedicated to treating stroke. The patient goes for a CT or MRI while the Catheter team assembles. An intravenous clot dissolver, tPA, is often used, or possibly a catheter is inserted into an artery and guided to the proper location. Sometimes the clot is mechanically removed as in the accompanying video.
The helicopter stroke response team featured in the posting is one aspect of the speed that is so essential; any delay will result in death, sometimes permanently, of brain cells.
Acute Heart attack treatment is basically similar to stroke, and was the pioneering venture into the interventional radiology described above. Also, the heart may be the source of the clots that lodge in the brain, especially from atrial fibrillation.
Please enjoy the following video which shows how mechanical clot removal is achieved.
Focal One® high-intensity focused ultrasound uses high-intensity sound waves to destroy a cancer tumor. It’s delivered through a rectal ultrasound probe. There are no incisions. Most patients need no pain medication after treatment. And there are fewer side effects than with radiation therapy or prostate removal.
Known as the Ironman, Hall of Famer Cal Ripken Jr. was diagnosed with prostate cancer during the COVID-19 pandemic. Partnering with the Brady Urological Institute, Mr. Ripken had a successful robotic radical prostatectomy to remove his tumor and is now deemed cancer free. Watch urologic surgeon Mohamad Allaf and Cal Ripken Jr. discuss his prostate cancer journey at Johns Hopkins and share his powerful message to men across the world.
Technologies in development for delivering vaccines include Enesi’s dissolving implants, microneedle patches, electrical-pulse systems, nasal sprays and even pills.
Some firms are developing their own vaccines against Covid-19, while others are aiming to reformulate some of the dozens already in development or being rolled out world-wide. Some are sitting this pandemic out in the hope of being ready for the next one.
All are in the early to mid-stages of development and clinical testing, suggesting it might be months if not years before they come to market. Big pharmaceutical companies have so far shown limited interest.