A weekly podcast on the latest medical, science and telehealth news.
Across the country, states are shelling out incentives ranging from free beer to $1 million lotteries to encourage residents to get their Covid-19 shots. But is the effort to boost vaccination rates working? And is it worth the cost? Photo composite: Adam Falk/The Wall Street Journal
The department of Otolaryngology offers telemedicine as a safe, secure and convenient way to consult with our care teams. Advanced planning, follow up visits and attending a consultation from a distant with a family member are beneficial ways to utilize telemedicine. See here for information on our clinic and specialty groups related to the department of Otolaryngology. https://www.mayoclinic.org/department…
Otorhinolaryngology is a surgical subspecialty within medicine that deals with the surgical and medical management of conditions of the head and neck. Doctors who specialize in this area are called otorhinolaryngologists, otolaryngologists, head and neck surgeons, or ENT surgeons or physicians.
An endoscopy allows your doctor to view your esophagus, stomach and part of the small intestine. Here’s how it works.
An endoscopy procedure involves inserting a long, flexible tube (endoscope) down your throat and into your esophagus. A tiny camera on the end of the endoscope lets your doctor examine your esophagus, stomach and the beginning of your small intestine (duodenum).
Professor Ashani Weeraratna has been studying the cancer microenvironment in her lab for the past 17 years. Taking into account that the tissues in our bodies change as we age is important when researching cancer biology. She hopes that gaining a better understanding of how the growth of cancer cells is affected by their direct cellular ‘neighbourhood’, especially when we age, could be key to developing better treatments for patients with cancer. Read more in
For many people, depression turns out to be one of the most disabling illnesses that we have in society. Despite the treatments that we have available, many people are not responding that well. It’s a disorder that can be very disabling in society. It’s also a disorder that has medical consequences.
By understanding the neurobiology of depression we hope to be able more to find the right treatment for the patient suffering from this disease. The current standard of care for the treatment of depression is based on what we call the monoamine deficiency hypothesis. Essentially, presuming that one of three neurotransmitters in the brain is deficient or underactive. But the reality is, there are more than 100 neurotransmitters in the brain. And billions of connections between neurons. So we know that that’s a limited hypothesis. Neurotransmitters can be thought of as the chemical messengers within the brain, it’s what helps one cell in the brain communicate with another, to pass that message along from one brain region to another. For decades, we thought that the primary pathology, the primary cause of depression was some abnormality in these neurotransmitters, specifically serotonin or norepinephrine. However, norepinephrine and serotonin did not seem to be able to account for this cause, or to cause the symptoms of depression in people who had major depression. Instead, the chemical messengers between the nerve cells in the higher centers of the brain, which include glutamate and GABA, were possibilities as alternative causes for the symptoms of depression. When you’re exposed to severe and chronic stress like people experience when they have depression, you lose some of the connections between the nerve cells. The communication in these circuits becomes inefficient and noisy, we think that the loss of these synaptic connections contributes to the biology of depression. There are clear differences between a healthy brain and a depressed brain. And the exciting thing is, when you treat that depression effectively, the brain goes back to looking like a healthy brain, both at the cellular level and at a global scale. It’s critical to understand the neurobiology of depression and how the brain plays a role in that for two main reasons. One, it helps us understand how the disease develops and progresses, and we can start to target treatments based on that. We are in a new era of psychiatry. This is a paradigm shift, away from a model of monoaminergic deficiency to a fuller understanding of the brain as a complex neurochemical organ. All of the research is driven by the imperative to alleviate human suffering. Depression is one of the most substantial contributors to human suffering. The opportunity to make even a tiny dent in that is an incredible opportunity.
Multiple myeloma is a relatively uncommon form of blood cancer that affects less than 1% of the U.S. population, according the American Cancer Society. People younger than 45 rarely get the disease, and it occurs more in older men than women. And your risk is doubled if you’re African American.
Hormones, Vitamins, and minerals all have extensive interactions in the give-and-take of the bodies’ ballet of homeostasis. No where is this more clear-cut than the interplay of parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, and calcium.
Although it has many other actions in the body, calcium is best known as the prime component of our bones. It is essential for making them healthy and strong. The bones act as a storehouse or vault for the bodies calcium. The parathyroid hormone is the key that unlocks the vault to release the calcium so it can perform its many other roles in the body. An elevation of the calcium in the blood stream shuts down the parathyroid Glands.
Parathyroid hormone also acts to instruct the body to absorb more vitamin D, just as the vitamin D causes the intestinal tract to absorb more calcium. The parathyroid glands are in the upper poles of the thyroid which as we mentioned before sits astride the windpipe.
Sometimes the parathyroid gland develops an adenoma which causes too much secretion of parathyroid hormone.
This results in an excess of calcium in the body and a variety of symptoms, such as joint pain muscle weakness, fatigue, nausea and vomiting. One of the technicians in my medical practice developed hyperparathyroidism. It was detected by a metabolic panel, which showed an elevation of serum calcium.
This discovery, early in my practice, made me a big fan of metabolic panels when patients have general symptoms. Her condition, a parathyroid adenoma, was cured by surgery. Conversely, surgery for an overactive thyroid can sometimes accidentally remove the parathyroid glands if the surgeon isn’t careful. The parathyroid glands are tiny, but they perform a huge function.