National Institute on Aging – Menopause is a point in time 12 months after a woman’s last period. The years leading up to that point, when women may have changes in their monthly cycles, hot flashes, or other symptoms, are called the menopausal transition or perimenopause.
The menopausal transition most often begins between ages 45 and 55. It usually lasts about seven years but can be as long as 14 years. The duration can depend on lifestyle factors such as smoking, age it begins, and race and ethnicity. During perimenopause, the body’s production of estrogen and progesterone, two hormones made by the ovaries, varies greatly.
The menopausal transition affects each woman uniquely and in various ways. The body begins to use energy differently, fat cells change, and women may gain weight more easily. You may experience changes in your bone or heart health, your body shape and composition, or your physical function
In this episode of the Heart podcast, Digital Media Editor, Dr James Rudd, is joined by Professor Carolyn Lam, a world expert in heart failure from the University of Singapore and the National Heart Centre, also in Singapore.
They discuss updates in the diagnosis and management of heart failure, including wearables, biomarkers, the 4 pillars of therapy, and how and why there has historically been an under-representation of women in heart failure trials. This episode is sponsored by an educational grant from the Boehringer Ingelheim-Lilly Alliance. The sponsor has no influence over podcast content, the selection of speakers or any associated educational material.
Professor Carolyn Lam is a Senior Consultant from the Department of Cardiology and Director of Women’s Heart Health at the National Heart Centre Singapore, having pioneered the first Women’s Heart Clinic in Singapore. Academically, she serves as a tenured Full Professor at the Duke-National University of Singapore, having also graduated from the Standford Executive Programme in 2015, and obtained a PhD at the University Medical Centre Groningen, the Netherlands in 2016. In the field of MedTech, Prof Lam is co-founder of Us2.ai, an award-wining startup dedicated to the automation of the fight against heart disease by applying artificial intelligence to echocardiography (ultrasound of the heart).
Prof Lam is a world-renowned specialist in heart failure (particularly heart failure with preserved ejection fraction [HFpEF]). Her work in the PARAGON-HF and EMPEROR-Preserved trials led to the first FDA-approved treatment for HFpEF and the first robustly positive clinical outcomes trial in HFpEF to-date, respectively. She leads several multinational global and regional clinical trials, and has received numerous prestigious awards and global recognition for her work. Her recent appointments on the 2021 European Society of Cardiology Heart Failure Guidelines Task Force, and as International Honorary Fellow of the Heart Failure Society of America 2021, attest to her contributions in both cardiology and research fields.
Prof Lam is a proud recipient of the National Medical Research Council (NMRC) Senior Investigator Clinician Scientist Award in 2020, and served as the Founding Programme Lead of A*STaR’s Asian neTwork for Translational Research and Cardiovascular Trials (ATTRaCT) and Principal Investigator of ASIAN-HF (a multinational study across 11 Asian countries). In 2019, She initiated the Asian Diabetes Outcomes Prevention Trial (ADOPT), an ongoing trial involving 5 countries and aimed at reducing the cardiovascular adverse outcomes of diabetes in Asian patients.
She has published with over 350 articles in major high impact journals including New England Journal of Medicine, Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), Lancet, Circulation, and European Heart Journal; and has been recognised as a World Expert by Expertscape’s PubMed-based algorithms (top 0.1% of scholars writing about Heart Failure over the past 10 years; Heart Failure: Worldwide – Expertscape.com). Besides being an Associate Editor for Circulation (top Cardiology Journal) and European Journal of Heart Failure, she is also the lead author of the chapter on HFpEF for Braunwald’s Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 12th Edition – the award-winning textbook trusted by generations of cardiologists for the latest, most reliable guidance in the field.
Johns Hopkins Medicine: What To Do When You Find a Lump in Your Breast? Breast imaging radiologist, Emily Ambinder discusses common questions one may have when discovering a lump in the breast.
Video timeline: 0:03 Why do lumps form in the breast? 026 What are the different types of lumps? 0:55 Can breast lumps form because of physical impact? Could those lumps become cancerous? 1:23 What do i do if i have found a lump? 1:47 What makes breast imaging at Johns Hopkins different? 2:01 What is a mammogram? 2:29 What is a breast ultrasound? 2:53 What else do I need to do if I have a lump?
If you have endometriosis, you’re all too familiar with the heavy periods, pain and nausea it can cause. Eating these foods might help control the pain and make all the difference.
Chapters: 0:00 Introduction 0:10 What is endometriosis? 0:45 Eating the right foods can help the body fight inflammation 1:01 Fiber rich foods 1:41 Omega-3 fats 2:10 Monounsaturated fats 2:30 Magnesium and zinc 3:25
It’s always important to eat good, healthy food Resources: The Best and Worst Foods for an Anti-Inflammatory Endometriosis Diet – https://cle.clinic/3VeYzyG
For women and people assigned female at birth (AFAB), taking care of your health requires more than an annual physical. You should also visit a women’s health specialist — like an Ob/Gyn, midwife or nurse practitioner — each year to keep healthy. More than just a checkup for your breasts/chest and reproductive organs; well-woman exams can also help you develop rapport with a women’s health specialist.
“Well-women exams are important for a number of reasons. No. 1 is that they help you to establish care with a specialist so that if there is a problem down the road, you have a provider that you know and feel comfortable talking to,” says Ob/Gyn Amanda Elbin, MD.
That comfort level is important, too, especially because many of us may not feel comfortable talking with just anyone about issues “down there.”
A women’s lifetime risk of developing breast cancer is one in eight. Research has shown that the earlier you detect breast cancer the more options there are for treatment and a better chance for a cure.
What is a mammogram?
A mammogram is a low-dose X-ray of breast tissue. Healthcare providers use mammograms, or mammography, to look for early signs of breast cancer before symptoms develop. This is called a screening mammogram. Providers also use mammography to look for any abnormalities if you develop a new symptom, such as a lump, pain, nipple discharge or breast skin changes. This is called a diagnostic mammogram.
Aside from skin cancer, breast cancer is the most common cancer that affects people assigned female at birth and represents 14% of all new cancer diagnoses in the United States. While breast cancer treatment therapies continue to improve and have contributed to a reduction in cancer-related deaths, early diagnosis through screening mammograms has a greater overall impact on survival rates.
Learning about cervical cancer can be intimidating. Kristina Butler, M.D., a gynecologic oncologist at Mayo Clinic, walks you through the facts, the questions, and the answers to help you better understand this condition.
Video timeline: 0:00 Introduction 0:38 What is cervical cancer? 1:16 Who gets cervical cancer? / Risk factors 2:23 Symptoms of cervical cancer 3:03 How is cervical cancer diagnosed? 4:26 Treatment options 5:20 Coping methods/ What now? 6:10 Ending
An oophorectomy is a surgical procedure where one or both of the ovaries are removed. This procedure can be done through a laparoscopic approach, a vaginal approach, or a laparotomy. Removing both ovaries will cause menopause to begin immediately.
There are many reasons why you may need an oophorectomy. This video provides a brief look at what the procedure is, how it’s done and important things to know.
Chapters: 0:00 What are ovaries? 0:17 What is an oophorectomy? 0:45 Why would you need an oophorectomy. 1:10 How is an oophorectomy performed? 2:13 Can you still get pregnant after an oophorectomy? 2:46 What is the recovery process after an oophorectomy? 3:38 Speak with your healthcare provider openly to discuss all of your options.
The most common heart attack symptom in women is the same as in men — some type of chest pain, pressure or discomfort that lasts more than a few minutes or comes and goes.
But chest pain is not always severe or even the most noticeable symptom, particularly in women. Women often describe heart attack pain as pressure or tightness. And it’s possible to have a heart attack without chest pain.
Women are more likely than men to have heart attack symptoms unrelated to chest pain, such as:
Neck, jaw, shoulder, upper back or upper belly (abdomen) discomfort
Shortness of breath
Pain in one or both arms
Nausea or vomiting
Lightheadedness or dizziness
These symptoms may be vague and not as noticeable as the crushing chest pain often associated with heart attacks. This might be because women tend to have blockages not only in their main arteries but also in the smaller ones that supply blood to the heart — a condition called small vessel heart disease or coronary microvascular disease.
DEAR MAYO CLINIC: I am a 45-year-old woman with urinary challenges, including feeling the frequent urge to empty my bladder. My primary doctor said I might have interstitial cystitis and suggested I see a urogynecologist. Could you explain this condition? What are my treatment options, and will I recover?
ANSWER:Cystitis is the medical term for inflammation of the bladder. Most of the time, the inflammation is caused by an infection. But interstitial cystitis, also called painful bladder syndrome, is different. It is a disease that causes pressure or pain in the bladder and pelvis that is associated with trying to hold urine.
Symptoms can range from mild burning or discomfort to severe pain and a persistent, urgent need to urinate. Interstitial cystitis is a chronic condition that can be difficult to treat, which is why your primary care provider suggested a urogynecologist.
A urogynecologist is a specialist who cares for women with pelvic floor disorders. This includes bladder leakage, pelvic organ prolapse and pelvic pain.
Unlike other forms of cystitis, researchers don’t know the exact reason for interstitial cystitis. But many theories exist regarding its cause.
Some researchers believe that people with interstitial cystitis have a defect in the protective lining, or epithelium, of their bladder. A leak in the epithelium may allow substances in urine to irritate the bladder wall, causing pain.
It’s also possible that problems with the pelvic nerves cause people who have interstitial cystitis to feel the need to urinate more often and with smaller volumes of fluid than most people. Other theories about the cause of interstitial cystitis include an autoimmune, hereditary, infectious or allergic condition, but none of these has been proven.