Hip fracture is an iconic bugaboo of old age. It is a chronic condition in the sense that its complications, such as Depression, blood clots and pneumonia often extend long beyond the healing process.
Predisposing factors include old age and associated risk factors like osteoporosis, sarcopenia (loss of muscle mass and strength), poor vision, poor balance and hazards in the home.
FALLING is the usual agency that produces the fracture. At the risk of being ostracized, I will point out that thousands of injuries sustained by walking or tripping over dogs (and cats) occur every year.
In my small “hilltop” group of friends, there was 1 fatality, 1 shoulder fracture-dislocation, 1 hip fracture, and 0 acknowledgements of animal causation. Members of the family are immune to blame.
Treatment of hip fracture involves surgery with pins, or the more cost-effective Hip replacement. PREVENTION is critical. Osteoporosis must be prevented by exercise, Calcium, vitamin D, and avoidance of certain medication like Corticosteroids.
Balance should be developed by exercises. Vision problems, such as cataracts,should be corrected. Muscle mass should be preserved by diet and exercise, and the home cleared of throw-rugs and obstacles removed.
Just yesterday, a friend wearing socks (reducing friction?) fell down some stairs after stepping over a dog-gate. She is scheduled to have her elbow pinned. Have I mentioned SLEEP, DIET and EXERCISE RECENTLY?
Stroke is far more common than you might realize, affecting more than 795,000 people in the U.S. every year. It is a leading cause of death and long-term disability. Yet until now, treatment options have been limited, despite the prevalence and severity of stroke.
Not so long ago, doctors didn’t have much more to offer stroke victims than empathy, says Kevin Sheth, MD, Division Chief of Neurocritical Care and Emergency Neurology. “There wasn’t much you could do.” But that is changing. Recent breakthroughs offer new hope to patients and families. Beating the Clock Think of stroke as a plumbing problem in the brain. It occurs when there is a disruption of blood flow, either because of a vessel blockage (ischemic stroke) or rupture (hemorrhagic stroke).
In both cases, the interruption of blood flow starves brain cells of oxygen, causing them to become damaged and die. Delivering medical interventions early after a stroke can mean the difference between a full recovery and significant disability or death. Time matters. Unfortunately, stroke care often bottlenecks in the first stage: diagnosis. Sometimes, it’s a logistical issue; to identify the type, size, and location of a stroke requires MRI imaging, and the machinery itself can be difficult to access.
MRIs use powerful magnets to create detailed images of the body, which means they must be kept in bunker-type rooms, typically located in hospital basements. As a result, there is often a delay in getting MRI scans for stroke patients. Dr. Sheth collaborated with a group of doctors and engineers to develop a portable MRI machine. Though it captures the images doctors need to properly diagnose stroke, it uses a less powerful magnet. It is lightweight and can be easily wheeled to a patient’s bedside.
“It’s a paradigm shift – from taking a sick patient to the MRI to taking an MRI to a sick patient,” says Dr. Sheth. Stopping the Damage Once a stroke has been diagnosed, the work of mitigating the damage can begin. “Brain tissue is very vulnerable during the first hours after stroke,” says vascular neurologist Nils Petersen, MD. He and his team are using advanced neuro-monitoring technology to study how to manage a patient’s blood pressure in the very acute phase after a stroke.
Dr. Petersen’s research shows that optimal stroke treatment depends on personalization of blood pressure parameters. But calculating the ideal blood pressure for the minutes and hours after a patient has a stroke can be complicated. It depends on a variety of factors—it is not a one-size-fits-all scenario. Harnessing the Immune System Launching an inflammatory reaction is how the body responds to injury anywhere in the body – including the brain, following stroke. However, in this case, the resulting inflammation can sometimes cause even more damage.
But what if that immune response could be used to the patient’s advantage? “We’re trying to understand how we can harness the immune system’s knowledge about how to repair tissues after they’ve been injured,” says Lauren Sansing, MD, Academic Chief of the Division of Stroke and Vascular Neurology. Her team is working to understand the biological signals guiding the immune response to stroke.
That knowledge can then direct the development of targeted therapeutics for the treatment of stroke that minimize early injury and enhance recovery. “We want to be able to lead research efforts that change the lives of patients around the world,” says Dr. Sansing.
Learn about these developments and more in the video above.
OraSure Technologies has blazed a trail in at-home diagnostic tests. Now, the Pennsylvania-based biotech company is working to produce a quick, over-the-counter coronavirus test that consumers can take in the privacy of their home with results available in minutes. NPR’s Allison Aubrey reports.
Hypertension places an extra load on the blood vessels and heart, and eventually causes them to become diseased. High Blood Pressure is therefore bad for the entire body, which depends on the blood vessels for delivering the nutrients and oxygen necessary for life.
Most hypertension happens from subtle changes in the body’s signalling systems, and often runs in families; This is called “essential hypertension”. Additionally, there are a number of diseases and conditions of which hypertension is a symptom. It is important to know if you have hypertension, and fortunately it is easy to discover.
A visit to the doctor, or even to the pharmacy will make a reading available, and if you are concerned, an automatic cuff is available for $20. A healthy lifestyle and weight Will help prevent and treat hypertension, as in so many other chronic conditions.
A variety of medications are available to treat hypertension, but ANY MEDICATION CAN PRODUCE SIDE EFFECTS. It is rare for an effective medication to produce only a single, desired effect on the body. I have never known a person who at some time did not experience some side effect from antihypertensive medications.
Be sure to maintain contact with your Doctor. The dose may be too high, causing episodes of LOW blood pressure with fainting. When I was in practice, any number of patients came to me with a chronic cough, which I “cured” by having their doctor replace their ACE Inhibitor with another medication.
Please read the accompanying Mayo Clinic article for a complete discussion of this important condition.
The infographic by the allergy and asthma foundation aims to distinguish between Covid, Influenza and allergy. I would like to discuss more than symptoms. Covid and Influenza are both caused by invading infectious viruses.
Allergy is an over-response by the sensitized body to harmless proteins from the environment Covid and Influenza viruses cause direct damage to the lining membranes of the respiratory tract provoking a protective response by the body which produces inflammation in the nose and lung. Rhinitis, bronchitis and pneumonia result, depending on the site of the inflammation.
The symptoms of Allergy are far different from both Influenza and covid. ITCHING of the nose, eyes and skin is the hallmark of allergic Rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis and Hives, respectively. Influenza or Covid Infection of the nose, eyes and airways can produce sneezing, redness, coughing and difficulty breathing, but not usually itching.
Fever is characteristic of Influenza and Covid, but not of uncomplicated Allergy. Asthma can result from either infection or allergy, but is a separate beast, caused by release of different inflammatory cytokines.
The ASTHMATIC REACTION shows itself in the BLOCKAGE of breathing of air OUT of the lung, on EXHALATION. This blockage on exhalation in asthma is heard as wheezing, a musical sound. Just ask the wheezing person to take a deep breath IN, which should be easier, and then breathe out as fast as possible, which should be slower and more difficult. Fever is not a feature of uncomplicated Asthma. Influenza and Covid.
Both produce FEVER, fatigue, aching and usually coughing. Covid has the greater linkage with Coughing, which often progresses to Shortness of breath. Both Influenza and Covid can produce a sore throat and runny nose. LOSS OF SENSE OF SMELL is unique to Covid, although if your nose is stuffy, the sense of smell can be impaired. Influenza preys on the very young, which are generally spared from Covid.
If you are careful about social distancing and wear masks in public, and get sick, Covid is more likely, since COVID IS MORE CONTAGIOUS THAN INFLUENZA. Covid protections will probably result in fewer cases of Influenza this winter.
To summarize,both the “flu” and Covid 19 are infectious conditions, vastly different from allergy, which is a derailed body defense mechanism. Any of the three can result in an asthmatic reaction, though the fever of influenza often lessens the Asthmatic response to that condition.. Covid is much more contagious and severe than influenza and can cause more widespread organ damage. Be sure to practice MASK WEARING AND SOCIAL DISTANCING.
If you have asthma and it worsens, in my opinion, this favors covid. My asthmatic patients often got better with the fever of Influenza. If you have a CHILD that gets sick, it is more likely to be Influenza than Covid.
THERMOREGULATION, preservation of the normal body temperature, is well developed in humans, and monitoring the body temperature has been useful since the development of thermometers.
Indirect measurement by Infrared detectors is being widely used today to detect FEVER as a sign of Covid in gatherings such as schools. Reactive increase of body temperature in a cool environment is a body defense mechanism that I have discussed earlier. Contrary to general practice, Fever, in my opinion, should be left untreated unless excessive, such as above 103 degrees F., or even 104 degrees.
Excessive environmental temperature, such as in a closed car, Jacuzzi, or heat wave can defeat the body’s ability to defend the normal temperature. Children, with their high body surface to mass ratio, are particularly at risk, as periodic newspaper articles testify. HEAT STROKE is the most serious of heat-related illnesses, leading to high and increasing body temperature, mental symptoms, even convulsions, and is a MEDICAL EMERGENCY.
The treatment is to call 911, and to lower the body temperature by removing insulating clothing, and immersing in cold water. There are a variety of other conditions based on excessive exertion, water or salt loss.
These include HEAT EXHAUSTION. Older Workers are particularly susceptible, and medical clinic attention may be needed for fluid and electrolyte replacement. MUSCLE CRAMPS and even damage( Rhabdomyolysis), FAINTING (this has been discussed before) and Heat Rash can result from too hot an environment. Furry Animals Pant instinctively to get their highly vascular Tongue to “air condition” their bodies. Humans should dress and exercise appropriately when the environment requires it.
New England Journal of Medicine (Aug 13, 2020) – In this small, single-center, nonblinded trial involving patients with chronic edema of the leg and cellulitis, compression therapy resulted in a lower incidence of recurrence of cellulitis than conservative treatment.
The researchers have conducted a single-center, randomized, nonblinded trial that aimed to find out an association between the compression therapy and controlled incidents of chronic edema of the leg and people with cellulitis that can be defined as an infection of the skin that involves subcutaneous tissues or the innermost layer of the skin. Cellulitis can be caused by trauma or scratching of other lesions due to animal or human bites that result in fever, extreme pain, and redness of the skin.
I have been using compression stockings for decades, since the discovery of the difference in color of my feet. An evaluation by a vascular surgeon revealed incompetence in the valve of my left popliteal vein. It wasn’t long before I developed small varicose veins.
Comfortable with PREVENTATIVE MEDICINE after a career in ALLERGY, I started wearing Jobst compression stockings, with 30-40 mm of constrictive force. After a decade or so of daily wearing, my big toes started to overlap my second toes, and I began using toe-spreaders; scissor-toe and hammer-toe were my worry, and I wanted to prevent this discomfort.
After a while, I began to notice that the Jobst stockings tended to bunch my toes together. Also, with the developing arthritis in my fingers, it was increasingly hard to get the 30-40mm stockings on without straining my arthritic hands. I now wear OPEN-TOE 15-20mm compression Medi stockings, which are easier to get on, and don’t bunch up my toes.
I still use the visco-elastic toe spreaders. Now, back to the compression stockings for treatment of cellulitis complicating ankle swelling. Of course it works. Beta Hemolytic Streptococci and Staph aureus like nothing better to feed on than a warm pool of interstitial fluid, which is the juice that comprises the ankle swelling.
And BLOOD CLOTS tend to form in the stagnant pools of blood which aggregates in varicose veins, particularly when you are sitting for a long time, such as during a long airline trip. By all means, use compression stockings if you have ankle edema, or even a condition predisposing to ankle edema like varicose veins. Don’t wait for the complication to develop. Be PROACTIVE, and STAY HEALTHY.
Headache has been with us since Neolithic times, and has caused enough distress to induce our ancestors to scrape holes in their skulls, perhaps to let out the causative Evil Spirits, or maybe a subdural hematoma.
When I was a practicing Allergist, i was sent many headache patients by other Doctors.This was, presumably, because the referring physician thought that their patients had “sinus” headaches. In fact, free standing headache does not commonly come from the sinuses.
Most headaches thought due to ‘sinuses” are in fact “vascular “ headaches. The theory of vascular headaches is that the average diet contains many chemicals that are active on blood vessels. Tyramine, degraded proteins and caffeine are examples. These chemicals, working on the blood vessels, cause irritation and pain. It follows,then, that avoidance of these chemicals would relieve the vascular headaches.
“Vascular headache”, and it’s severe cousin, Migraine headache, is now included under PRIMARY HEADACHE, which also includes Tension headache, and a variety of less common diagnoses. But it is still useful for Treatment, which is why I use the term.
My treatment was a fresh, “health food” diet which avoided preserved foods such as salami, sausages, sauerkraut, leftovers, cheeses, red wine and a variety of other foods likely to have degraded amino acids and Tyramine.
The “mold-free diet” was the published diet closest to listing the suspected foods. The benefit reported from the diet encouraged me to continue recommending it. Vascular headaches are essentially a mild variety of migraine headaches. The foods avoided in the “mold-free diet” are still, after several decades of progress still recognized as migraine triggers.
I encountered only one patient with BRAIN TUMOR in my practice. She had severe, unremitting, gradually increasing headaches over a 4 week period. I called a Neurologist, the type of doctor that treats most severe headaches, who informed me he had NEVER seen a patient with a brain tumor who presented with a headache only, so uncommon it is.
Tension Headaches are milder, and usually can be handled at home. These headaches are usually accompanied by tenderness in the muscles of the back of the neck, or in the temple region, and are brought on by stress.
Hypertension, if extremely high, can cause headache, and can be dangerous, but I never saw a case. Nor did I attend a patient with temporal arteritis, which can also be an emergency.
There are some “red flags” that indicate urgent need for evaluation:
New headache in older patient
New change in headache pattern, or progressively worsening headache
Signs and symptoms of illness ( fever, stiff neck, rash).
Headache triggered by cough or exertion.
Headache in pregnancy or postpartum period
First, worst Headache.
New headaches with AIDS, compromised immunity, or cancer.
Headaches accompanied by mental changes, weakness, or abnormal Neurological signs.
Selective medications are available for some headaches.
Preventative and abortive medications sometimes are helpful for migraine. Antidepressants, tryptans, beta blockers, and corticosteroids are medications best prescribed by specialists.
The tendency to use pain killers, especially narcotics, must be tempered. Frequent use can create additional problems, like ADDICTION. The CAUSE of the headache must be found, if possible, and specifically treated.
Of course, I did find patients with true SINUS HEADACHE, but the headache was accompanied by fever, tenderness over the sinuses, yellow nasal discharge, and other evidence of SINUSITIS, and went away when the infection was treated.
If you have a lot of headaches, and no “red flags” or “risk factors”, you might try a “mold free diet” for a few weeks. Your Nutrition and health would certainly not suffer. And you might have fewer headaches!
Please read the following article for a more complete discussion of this common and annoying problem.
Chronic back pain and sciatica are very common, and increasing in prevalence. The human back does not seem to have been designed for obesity coupled with sedentary habits. I have had both back pain and sciatica . My wife had surgery in an attempt to control her back pain, my son successfully controlled his back pain with medical treatment, and an 87 year old friend recently had successful micro-neurosurgical treatment.
I will summarize these stories and will finish with some generalizations I believe will help those wanting to avoid a lot of misery. The sooner you start the better.
My back pain developed after an ill-advised use of a shovel to get rid of some grass intruding on my asphalt driveway, and caused me to miss work for the only day in 35 years of practice. Sciatica then developed on my left side. I could not sleep flat, and would sit all night in a comfortable chair. A hospital bed helped me outlast the impressive calf pain.
My wife developed severe back pain eventually leading to a “laminectomy and fusion”. Some level of back pain and incapacity plagued her the rest of her life.
My son developed severe sciatica and went to an Orthopedist. After a CAT scan revealed a rupture disc, he was penciled in for surgery. When asking about alternative treatments, the doctor told him, half laughingly, to lose 20% of his body weight and to start swimming. He went on a 30 day, 1000 calorie/day diet and lost 30 lbs. He has been swimming daily for the past 10 years. He has had no more back pain.
My 87 year old friend developed sciatica on his right side, had no luck with PT and pain meds including opioids. Microsurgery by a neurosurgeon successfully removed his ruptured disc, and he has had little or no pain after the first week.
Sciatica at least has a well defined cause: something is irritating that long nerve which starts in the small of the back and travels to its’ destination in the foot. That something is often an extrusion from an intervertebral disc, a cushion between the block-like vertebral bodies.
This herniation can be confirmed by a CAT scan or MRI, and removed by minimally invasive microsurgery. Beyond that model problem, down through spinal stenosis and ending in chronic back pain, the understanding gets progressively more fuzzy, treatment ever more contrived.
Prevention sounds better and better. The most important thing in preventing back pain is to MAINTAIN A NORMAL WEIGHT. Our backs were not designed for vertically compressive forces. The lock-step increasing incidences of obesity and back/sciatic problems support this idea.
REGULAR EXERCISE is very important. Swimming and walking are 2 of the best forms of exercise. Exercises like running on hard surfaces, jumping in volleyball, and weight lifting seem less optimal.
The ABDOMINAL MUSCLES stabilize the spine, and prevent excessive motion. Walking and swimming both exercise and strengthen the abdominals.
Maintaining FLEXIBILITY and RANGE OF MOTION are important. flexibility will help prevent those unplanned, sudden motions from throwing your back out of alignment, or maybe generating a painful muscle tear.
Finally, getting into the habit of BENDING YOUR LEGS and tensing the stabilizing abdominals when you pick up something on the floor is a help.
I question the wisdom of back surgery for back pain alone, especially if accompanied by spinal fusion. Even when there is sciatica, the statistics show that treatment with surgery is no better than medical therapy after 2 years.
The development of microsurgical techniques may give surgery an edge, however. At the risk of cliche, AN OUNCE OF PREVENTION IS WORTH A POUND OF CURE.
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