The urinalysis is a very good screening test, and therefore often ordered with an annual physical examination. It gives insight into a very vital organ, the kidney.
It is the definitive test for a urinary tract infections, which are very common particularly in women, with their short urethras, and is also very good at reflecting abnormalities in the body of various sorts.
Urine color– very helpful in many conditions, such as liver disease, hemolytic anemia, porphyria, and Homocystinuria. When I had my bladder cancer bleed, the urine was red in color of course.
Clarity – The presence of many small particles, such as white blood cells or bacteria will make the urine cloudy.
Urine specific gravity – Will be high if you’re drinking insufficient water.
Urine pH — Will be out of range in several conditions, such as urine infections and somatic acidosis, which can happen in diabetes.
Urine protein – Gets into the urine in some kidney conditions such as nephrosis.
Urine glucose – Is positive mainly in diabetes, which was very important to follow when I was practicing in order to follow the diabetes. It is still important in the early pick up of diabetes and people that didn’t know they had it. Blood sugars are much more used these days to follow diabetes.
Urine ketones – Can indicate out of control diabetes. Can also Occur with certain very low carbohydrate diets; keto diets are named for this effect.
Urine blood -A counter check to the microscopic examination for red blood cells.
Urine nitrite – Elevated with urinary tract infections, a check on microscopic white blood cells.
Urinary Urobilinogen – Elevated in certain liver diseases.
Urinary leukocytic esterase -A check on urinary white blood cells
Urinary microscopic examination:
Urinary RBC – Elevated in urinary tract bleeding in certain kidney and bladder diseases.
Urinary WBC – Elevated with urinary tract infections
Transitional epithelial cells – Sometimes have significance to doctors
Urinary bacteria – Of course Indicates urinary tract infection
Urinary yeast and hyphae – May indicate a fungal infection.
The urinalysis I obtained when my red urine due to my bladder cancer alarmed me showed Red urine color 30 mg/dL urine proteins, large amount of blood, 10-15 red blood cells, (elevated) and a few bacteria and yeast, a spurious finding.
When you go in for a general physical, assuming that you are well, it is always comforting to have a negative urinalysis, a broad screening test for all kinds of different problems.
— Dr, C