Tag Archives: Medicine

Reviews: Heart Attacks Vs. Sudden Cardiac Arrest

Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) isn’t the same as a heart attack, though people often use the terms interchangeably. While both are life-threatening heart conditions, understanding the differences could be lifesaving.

When it comes to cardiac arrest versus a heart attack, it can be easy to get them confused. You may be wondering, Is cardiac arrest the same as a heart attack?

Both a heart attack and cardiac arrest can be scary and life-threatening medical conditions affecting your heart, but there are differences in how and why they occur.

A heart attack is caused by a blockage. It happens when an artery blocks the blood flow to your heart.

Cardiac arrest is an electrical issue. It occurs when quick, irregular impulses take over your heart’s rhythm.

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Infographic: Diagnosis & Care Of Multimorbidity

People with multimorbidity (two or more coexisting conditions in an individual) are more likely to die prematurely, be admitted to hospital and have an increased length of stay than people with a single chronic condition.

Multimorbidity is also associated with poorer function and health-related quality of life (HRQOL), depression and intake of multiple drugs (polypharmacy) and greater socioeconomic costs. Most health care is designed to treat individual conditions rather than providing comprehensive, person-centreed care, which often leads to fragmented and sometimes contradictory care for people with multimorbidity and increases their treatment burden.  Moreover, treating one condition at a time is inefficient and unsatisfactory for both people with multimorbidity and their health-care providers.

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Reviews: WHY ARE FLU, RSV AND STREP SURGING IN 2022?

Daniela Hernandez | WSJ – Getting the flu can increase the risk of getting a second infection, including strep throat. WSJ’S Daniela Hernandez explains the science behind that, plus what it means for the rest of the winter and how we can protect ourselves so the tripledemic doesn’t get worse.

Video timeline: 0:24 – Flu Damage 1:25 – Lower population immunity 2:03 – Who’s most vulnerable? 3:05 – How can we protect ourselves?

Medicine: Living Donor Liver Transplantation

Cleveland Clinic – In living donor liver transplantation a portion of a donor’s healthy liver is transplanted into a recipient in need. Living donor liver transplantation is possible because the liver, unlike any other organ in the body, has the ability to regenerate (regrow). Most regeneration of both the donor’s and recipient’s livers occurs within the first 8 weeks.

All potential donors will undergo a complete medical and psychosocial evaluation. Not everyone is suitable or eligible to become a living liver donor based on a number of factors such as pre-existing medical conditions, psychosocial concerns, or liver size. Donating an organ is a personal decision that should only be made after becoming fully informed about its potential risks and benefits.

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Heart Disease: Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Risks

A thoracic aortic aneurysm is a weak spot in the aorta, the main pipeline for blood from the heart to the body. The weak spot has the potential to dissect or rupture, cutting off the supply of life-sustaining blood to the rest of the body. Thoracic aortic aneurysms are often harder to detect and diagnose compared to the more common abdominal aortic aneurysms. 

December 14, 2022

The aorta begins deep in the heart. It emerges from the top of the powerful left ventricle, curves up and over the heart in a gentle arch, then descends into the chest and through the muscular diaphragm into the abdomen (see “Thoracic aorta”). It ends around the belly button, where it splits into two smaller arteries, one for each leg.

THORACIC AORTA

From start to end, arteries branch off to nourish the heart, brain, arms, kidneys, liver, stomach, intestines, and every other part of the body. The stretch of the aorta from its start in the heart to the top of the diaphragm is called the thoracic aorta; the section below the diaphragm is the abdominal aorta.

Some aneurysms are relatively harmless. Others can lead to the catastrophic problems known as dissection or rupture. For now, size is the best and only guide to the health threat posed by an aneurysm.

Dissection. The most common consequence of an aortic aneurysm, dissection occurs when a tear develops in the inner lining of the aortic wall. The inner and outer layers peel apart, creating an extra channel for blood inside the aorta. It may do no harm, or it may allow blood to bypass the outflow to certain organs or tissues, leaving them without a blood supply. This can cause a heart attack, stroke, kidney damage, and other problems.

Rupture. A break in all three layers of the aortic wall is termed a rupture. Blood pours from the aorta into the chest. This massive internal bleeding can quickly lead to shock and death.

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Women’s Health: How To Ease & Manage Menopause

National Institute on Aging – Menopause is a point in time 12 months after a woman’s last period. The years leading up to that point, when women may have changes in their monthly cycles, hot flashes, or other symptoms, are called the menopausal transition or perimenopause.

The menopausal transition most often begins between ages 45 and 55. It usually lasts about seven years but can be as long as 14 years. The duration can depend on lifestyle factors such as smoking, age it begins, and race and ethnicity. During perimenopause, the body’s production of estrogen and progesterone, two hormones made by the ovaries, varies greatly.

The menopausal transition affects each woman uniquely and in various ways. The body begins to use energy differently, fat cells change, and women may gain weight more easily. You may experience changes in your bone or heart health, your body shape and composition, or your physical function

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ANALYSIS: HOW TO MAKE HEALTHCARE AFFORDABLE

The cost of health care is unaffordable for many in the developing world. But while universal health care may sound like an impossible dream, it’s more achievable than you might think.

Video timeline00:00 – The argument for universal health coverage is clear 00:57 – Thailand’s path to universal health coverage 03:31 – Universal health care around the world 04:48 – How to finance universal health coverage? 05:30 – Rwanda: from genocide to public health exemplar 07:19 – What is a pooling finance system? 08:01 – Which services make the cut? 11:17 – The economic benefits of UHC 12:23 – Could covid-19 be a catalyst for reform?

Dr. C’s Journal: Some Facts Regarding Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis is an ancient killer, and is one of the few diseases that has been traced back to Ancient Egypt and beyond. TB has ravaged humanity for millennia, and was commonly called consumption due to its tendency to produce weight loss.

Once thought to be under control, TB has received a new lease on life with the emergence of AIDS. All countries except North America, western Europe, and Australia have a problem with tuberculosis, which kills more than 1 million people each year.

The tuberculosis germ is unusual in that It has a cell wall high in the lipid, mycolic acid. This protects the germ when it is engulfed by first responders such as macrophages. The infected cell Is surrounded by other macrophages, lymphocytes and Fibroblasts to form a granuloma. This creates a standoff, where the tuberculosis germ is still alive, but walled off, and becomes an inactive or “latent” case of tuberculosis, a small percentage of which become active each year.

Active tuberculosis produces the usual infectious symptoms of fever, chills, and cough, often productive with blood. The tuberculosis germ multipliesu much more slowly than most other bacteria and the symptoms are long and drawn out; a cough lasting for more than a month, especially if accompanied by weight loss, should raise the suspicion of TB.

TB can spread to infect bones, kidneys, liver, and brain,  but prefers the lung.

A spot on the Lung, confirmed by a Tuberculin test, or a blood test called a T-spot, will confirm the diagnosis.

The slow multipication of the tuberculosis Germ requires much longer treatment, and the combination with AIDS has caused a  rapid development of resistant organisms. Fortunately, there are several drugs available.

Only one immunization is currently available, namely BCG. This has been used a lot in Europe and other countries . BCG produces a weekly positive tuberculin test.

A large number of conditions which reduce immunity, such as cigarette smoking, drug use, and immunosuppressive treatments associated with organ transplants and cancer will  predispose a person to catching tuberculosis. TV is transmitted in the tiny droplets from sneezing, coughing, or talking such as we were accustomed to thinking about during Covid. The same preventative measures, such as  masks and avoiding close contact with infected individuals should be practiced to prevent spread from an infected person.

If you follow a healthy lifestyle and are careful when traveling, you will most likely have no trouble with this nasty infection. Please check with the following reference or more complete information.

—Dr. C.

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