Tag Archives: Pathogens

Inflammation: Three Ways It Affects Your Health

Acute inflammation happens as a part of our defense mechanism to clear out pathogens. So when a virus or bacteria invades us, we need to quickly mount an acute inflammatory response to get rid of the pathogen. Sometimes, that acute immune response isn’t enough to get rid of the pathogen. That’s when we elevate the level to the adaptive immune response. That’s when you involve specific lymphocytes, T and B cells, to fight off the infection.

So inflammation is a necessary process for dealing with pathogens but sometimes, it can also turn against us. Chronic inflammation happens because the body fails to get rid of the cause of the inflammation, such as viruses and bacteria. In those conditions, such as, you know, chronic infection with HIV or hepatitis virus or lung COVID, in which case we there may be a persistent viral reservoir that’s causing this chronic inflammation, the inflammation itself becomes the enemy.

Even though inflammation evolve to counter pathogens, it’s also engaged by other causes, and so having this amount of fat, for example, alone is able to trigger the immune system and induce the chronic inflammatory response that then fuels further problems to happen because the body is sort of trying to fight off a non-existent infection and therefore, it can sort of engage a chronic state of inflammation.

I can’t think of a disease which doesn’t involve inflammation, but we are now learning more and more about the physiological role of inflammation. Homeostasis ensures that we have a normal operation of different physiological functions like heart rate, breathing and glucose levels or insulin levels. Those two system, the inflammatory system and the homeostasis, they work together to maintain each other. Sometimes, the inflammatory response has to override the homeostatic response.

That includes things like adaptation to a different diet. The immune cells are now known to be able to sense differences in dietary conditions and adapt the intestine for future absorption of nutrients. This kind of events that are not necessarily at all related to pathogens, but for maintaining physiology. Inflammatory responses are integral in order to maintain health. So a molecular-level understanding of inflammation is necessary to understand the logic by which these systems function, and also it provides the pharmaceutical target for future therapies of inflammatory diseases.

‘INFECTIONS’: HOW WE EXPERIENCE INTERACTIONS WITH MICROORGANISMS

The RNA molecule is central to life. It is the information molecule of the Pandemic SARS CoV 2 virus, whose Messenger RNA specifying Spike proteins is the basis of 2 recently-released vaccines.

“RNA Life” is the leading theory for the Origin of Life itself, more than 3 Billion years ago. DNA evolved as the blueprint information molecule in cellular life, but the ubiquitous RNA may well have become the first viruses.

The stage was set for the ongoing battle of life: Parasite vs. Host, Pathogen vs. Target, but recent research reveals a much more nuanced picture. Viruses and bacteria can be BENEFICIAL as well as deleterious. We now speak of the MICROBIOME, usually referring to our host of resident BACTERIA, and the VIROME referring to all of our indwelling VIRUSES.

INFECTION is how we experience our interaction with microorganisms, their benefits unseen. Bacteria, viruses and parasites have always been with us, increasing in impact as Paleolithic man crowded into agricultural settlements.

Enlarging cities became more dense, favoring spread of infection and PLAGUES. The Bacterium, Yersinia Pestis,emerged in Roman times,
causing the Justinian plague, and resurfaced in the 14th C. as the Black Death. Viral Plagues, including Smallpox, were devastating during European adventures into the New World.

Malaria, a one-cell Eukaryotic Parasite, may be the greatest killer of all time. Modern Sanitation and improving medication have lately pushed bacterial infections into the background.

Viral infections such as Influenza and most recently Covid have become the Modern face of infection. Many Viruses reduce Immunity, however, paving the way for bacteria to invade: Haemophilus influenzae, a bacterium, may have caused much of the mortality of the 1817-1918
Flu epidemic.

IV drug usage has facilitated the spreading of the viruses causing Hepatitis and AIDS. The immune-compromising nature of the latter has reinvigorated TB and Syphilis, both bacterial infections. Only a few years ago, bacterial infection was thought to be conquered by antibiotics, and viral infection contained by Vaccines.

Microorganisms are constantly evolving, however, and often share their resistance factors. Infection is no more a thing of the past than War. The Battle continues.

–Dr. C.