Tag Archives: Enzyme


Our Kidneys and Liver have a lot in common. They are not dramatic, take-care-of-me-now organs like our Hearts and Brain, but usually do their job quietly until they lose almost all of their function. They have lots of reserve; you can donate one of your kidneys or a piece of your liver and notice no change. They are both vital organs, and you will die without them.

Since they both help clear wastes and toxins from the bloodstream and produce hormones, they SHARE SYMPTOMS such as nausea, vomiting, fatigue, and mental changes.Their performance can be checked by blood tests. Healthy habits will protect their -and your- survival.

Certain Drugs impair their operation. They are both composed of many identical functional units, the nephron in the kidney, and the hepatic lobule in the liver.

The GLOMERULUS of the Nephron is a tuft or ball of capillaries and associated kidney cells that allow the fluid and dissolved molecules of the blood to come through, while restraining the larger proteins and cells of the blood, keeping them in the vascular system. The smaller molecules of sodium, potassium, urea and other waste products leak through the glomerulus.

This filtered liquid travels through the long, folded kidney tubules, where the RIGHT AMOUNT of salt and water are REABSORBED. This keeps the vascular fluids, the internal environment, the MILIEU INTERIOR, perfectly well adjusted for proper cell function. It is when the chemical environment of the body falls out of adjustment, when the kidneys FAIL to do their job, that the cells of the body cannot function properly, and Symptoms-fatigue, lethargy etc. – develop.

BLOOD PRESSURE is intimately involved with the KIDNEYS, which has an Endocrine function. The Renin( Renal=kidneys) Angiotensin system is a major regulator of blood pressure.

You may have heard of the ACE-2 receptor as the binding site of th COVID Virus. This Angiotensin Converting Enzyme receptor is on the surface of cells all over the body and normally functions to control blood pressure.

DIABETES is the most common cause of end stage renal disease (ESRD), bringing our healthy triad of SLEEP DIET and EXERCISE to our attention once again.

POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASE is an inherited condition where many nephrons fail to hook up to the urine collecting system, and the fluid builds up into cysts, which then eventually replace the rest of the kidney. Pressure from urine blockage by an enlarged prostate, or even lack of ureteral valves can also back up into the kidneys and eventually cause ESRD.

Infections and autoimmune diseases can result in ESRD. Treatment of ESRD is usually a Kidney transplant or Dialysis. There is a waiting list for the former and the latter is life-altering. You can’t beat a healthy lifestyle.

–Dr. C.


The Idea that lack of certain nutritional factors could cause disease predates the germ theory by hundreds of years. British sailors could be saved from the ravages of SCURVY by a little sour fruit, and were called LIMEYS. Just before the first World War, a “milk factor” was found to be contained in butterfat, and was called Vitamin A.

The factor in “rice polishings”, known for decades to prevent disease caused by a diet exclusively of white, or “polished”rice was called Vitamin B.

Thus the Lettering system of vitamin-naming began. It wasn’t known until just before the Second World War that “vitamin B” was in fact several different substances (B1. B2. etc.), and later yet until these factors were found to be small, non-protein molecules that were “cofactors” in important enzymatic reactions essential in the body.

The metabolic pathways of our Hunter-gatherer ancestors could depend on the DIVERSE FOOD sources of Paleolithic man to supply these vital substances. Therefore, the body did not need to synthesize them, saving energy, but paving the way for future problems.

As a group, B vitamins produce energy from nutrients, support immune function, regulate cell growth, maintain Myelin, and maintain RBCs, among other crucially important things.

Some substances used to be considered B Vitamins, were later found to be synthesized in our bodies: these include Choline, Carnitine, Lipoic acid and PABA.

The latter is essential to Bacteria, leading to the development of the Sulfa Drugs, which Block PABA synthesis. Another pair of substances are so widely present in foods as to be rarely deficient: B5, Pantothenic acid, and B7, Biotin.

Three important, essential B Vitamins, B6, Pyridoxine, B9, Folic acid, and B12, Cyanocobalamin are so intertwined in their effects, they are best considered a unit. For instance, if B9 is supplemented while B12 is deficient, severe neurological problems arise. B6,9 and 12 must be kept balanced.

That leaves B1,B2, and B3, Thiamine, Riboflavin, and Niacin. Thiamine and Niacin deficiencies used to be common, especially when white rice and white flour replaced the more common brown variety, and led to Beri-Beri and Pellagra respectively.

My own Medicine Cabinet used to have the enriched B-vitamins, called B50 and B100 at Trader Joes. To cut down on pills, I switched to a multivitamin rich in most B vitamins. With the additional 4 mg. of Folic acid, I now take 1000% of the MDR of B6, B9 and B12, which I explained in a previous post to be driven by my elevated Homocysteine.

The Medical establishment and much research demeans the “health food nuts” as doing little more than making their toilets healthier. Indeed, research on Vitamin E supplementation has shown to cause cancer, Vitamin D supplementation to be useless, and folic acid supplementation to be potentially bad. Vitamin C supplementation does nothing but increase the likelihood of Kidney stones, etc.

The experiments are performed, and MDRs calculated on GROUPS of people, however, and with the INDIVIDUAL VARIATION in metabolism, with AGING of the human body (research on nutrients rarely includes the Elderly), and the lousy fast foods of the modern diet, I will continue with my supplementation.

In 2 of the vitamins, D and folic acid, B9, I am on firm ground, having blood levels of 25 hydroxy Vitamin D, and Homocysteine respectively to give me a frame of reference.

The truth is that the medical profession is poorly educated in nutrition, has little incentive to improve their knowledge, and has scant spare time to take dietary histories even if they knew more.

Even in the 60s when I routinely had my Patients keep a “diet diary” so I knew what they were eating, most doctors did not think this worth the time.

Educate yourself on SLEEP, DIET and EXERCISE, resolve to practice what you learn, and leave the medical profession to do what they are best at, and paid for: give medicines and perform procedures and surgery.

–Dr. C.