THE DOCTORS 101 CHRONIC SYMPTOMS & CONDITIONS #19: DIVERTICULOSIS

Your large bowel, or colon, is at the end of the Gastrointestinal tract. It starts on the right side of your abdomen, where the small intestine empties into the caecum. This is also where the Appendix bulges down, looking like a little finger coming from the caecum. The 5 foot long large intestine is the final processing area of your food, after the nutrients have been absorbed.

The Colon contains virtually all of the microbiome, reduces the volume of the fecal matter, and propels it to its final destination. The propelling muscles are an inner circular ring, and 3 outer longitudinal strips. These outer strips of muscle do not completely encircle the Colon, allowing for protuberances of lining membrane and circular muscle to balloon out into prominences called Taenia.

It is in these weakened areas, especially where blood vessels penetrate that little herniations form over the years. Diverticulosis occurs in 50% of people more than 60 years of age, and in almost everybody more than 80 years.

Diverticulosis is a condition where pressures up to 120 mm or mercury, generated by the colonic muscles gradually push out little pouches of lining membrane called diverticula. Nobody knows why some people get an INFLAMMED diverticulum.

Age, of course, is a factor, as are Obesity, diabetes, smoking and poor diet; a tendency toward inflammation is common in all of these risk factors. Comparing diverticulitis with Appendicitis is an interesting exercise. The symptoms are mirror images of each other. Appendicitis occurs on the right side.

Diverticulitis usually occurs on the left side, except in asian people. The asian DIET seems to favor diverticula on the right side. When asians immigrate to the U.S. and start eating more Red meat and fewer vegetables, the diverticula shift to the left side.

Signs of Diverticulitis include gastrointestinal symptoms, such as pain, tenderness,nausea, cramps, constipation, and Fever. Rectal bleeding can sometimes occur. Treatment includes antibiotics.

If the condition worsens, serious complications, such as abcess may develop and require surgery. As usual, Prevention, including diet and exercise, is better than Treatment. A HIGH FIBER DIET is the best prevention.

–Dr. C.

Article #1 to readDiverticular disease of the colon: New perspectives in symptom development and treatment

Article #2 to readManagement of Colonic Diverticulitis | Effective Health Care Program

HEALTH: ‘DIABETES AND CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE’ – NEW GUIDELINES (OCT 2020)

Comprehensive care in patients with diabetes and CKD

Management of CKD in diabetes can be challenging and complex, and a multidisciplinary team should be involved (doctors, nurses, dietitians, educators, etc). Patient participation is important for self-management and to participate in shared decision-making regarding the management plan. (Practice point).

We recommend that treatment with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) or an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) be initiated in patients with diabetes, hypertension, and albuminuria, and that these medications be titrated to the highest approved dose that is tolerated (1B).

Lifestyle interventions in patients with diabetes and CKD

We suggest maintaining a protein intake of 0.8 g protein/kg)/d for those with diabetes and CKD not treated with dialysis (2C).

On the amount of proteins recommended in these guidelines, they suggest (‘recommend’ becomes a ‘suggest’ at this level of evidence) a very precise  intake of 0.8g/kg/d in patients with diabetes and CKD. Lower dietary protein intake has been hypothesized but never proven to reduce glomerular hyperfiltration and slow progression of CKD, however in patients with diabetes, limiting protein intake below 0.8g/kg/d can be translated into a decreased caloric content, significant weight loss and quality of life. Malnutrition from protein and calorie deficit is possible.

Physical activity

We recommend that patients with diabetes and CKD be advised to undertake moderate-intensity physical activity for a cumulative duration of at least 150 minutes per week, or to a level compatible with their cardiovascular and physical tolerance (1D).

Read full guidelines